Holland Typology


The concept is of particular interest for HR managers and recruiters seeking to understand the relationship between the individual's personality and their choice of career. The concept summarises and explains the six personality traits described by Gottfredson and Holland.

Technique Overview

Holland Typology

Holland Typology Definition

John L. Holland, while formulating a theory of careers, discovered a set of six personality types that are instrumental in a person's choice of career. He saw vocation as an extension and expression of personality (Holland, 1973). The six personalities are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. Hence, it is also sometimes referred to as the RIASEC Model.

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Business Evidence

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Business Application

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Professional Tools

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Further Reading

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Holland Typology References (4 of up to 20) *

  • ABET (1997) Engineering Criteria 2000 [Electronic version]. Baltimore: Author.
  • Armstrong, P.I. and Day, S. (2008) Holland’s RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 55(1), pp. 1–18.
  • Brown, S. and Lent, R. (2004) Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work. New Jersey: Wiley.
  • Brown, D. (2007) Career Information, Career Counseling, and Career Development. (9th Ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

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