Expectancy theory is one of the most influential theories of motivation in business psychology. The concept explains the strengths and weaknesses of the theory in a business context and the steps required to implement the theory for better workforce performance.
Expectancy Theory Definition
Expectancy theory describes the extent to which an individual is likely to pursue a certain course of action (motivational force), which is in turn a function of expectancy (a belief that increased effort will produce better performance), x instrumentality (a belief that better performance will lead to certain outcomes), x valence (a belief that the outcome will be desirable) (van Eerde & Thierry, 1996).
Expectancy Theory Description *
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Expectancy Theory Strengths *
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Examples of Expectancy Theory *
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Expectancy Theory Implementation *
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Expectancy Theory References (4 of up to 20) *
- Armstrong, M. (2002) Rewarding Individual and Team Contributions and Organisational Performance in Employee Reward, CIPD, London.
- Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., Powers, J. B. and Gartner, W. B. (2002) Entrepreneurial Expectancy, Task Effort and Performance, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 27 (2), pp. 187-206.
- Hackman, J. R. and Oldham, G. R. (1975) Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 60 (2), pp. 159-70.
- Holton, V. and James, P. (2000) The Development and Motivation of R&D Staff, Ashridge Research, The Leverhulme Foundation.
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