Agile Supply

This concept reviews agility in organisations and discusses the view that in the current economic environment it is key for creating of responsive supply chains. This concept will particularly assist managers and procurement professionals by offering business evidence and implementation suggestions.

Automated Buying

The concept describes systems designed to aid organisations to streamline their purchasing processes and achieve savings. It presents a concise description of these systems, their core benefits, success factors and implementation steps.

Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chain

The bullwhip effect occurs when the demand order variabilities in the supply chain are amplified as they move up the chain. The concept is created to help supply chain professionals to effectively counteract the bullwhip effect.

Buyer-Seller Improvement Teams

The concept introduces the notion of buyer-seller improvement teams and discusses the importance of such collaboration for optimising supply chains and new product development.

Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP)

The effective implementation of CRP can dramatically reduce stock levels and improve customer service and manufacturing productivity through better planning. The concept reviews these techniques and suggests what steps can be taken to implement it.

Category Management in Purchasing and Supply Management

The concept reviews tools and processes that can deliver value and cost savings when sourcing and purchasing. It is created to help practitioners to understand markets, analyse spend, and make better purchasing decisions.

Centralised/Decentralised Procurement

Created to support procurement professionals in their decisions on the structure of procurement departments, the concept provides useful information on the advantages and drawbacks of both structures, as well as some implementation advice.

Change Management

Planned change management allows managers and practitioners to incorporate specific tasks and events into each stage of the change process. The concept explores how to face highly dynamic and complex environments and how to make the most of an organisational change.

Closed-Loop Supply Chain (CLSC)

The purpose of this concept is to review the Closed Loop Supply Chain structure and explore its characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. It also investigates the factors leading to the development of a closed-loop supply chain and offers some useful implementation information.

Cloud Computing in Supply Chain

Cloud-based technology offers new ways of monitoring critical supply-chain processes. The concept describes the term and provides some practical information for professionals interested in partnering with cloud computing service providers to deploy their technologies.


Co-sourcing is advisable for processes that an organisation does not want to completely allocate to an external provider. It reviews the main characteristics, benefits and pitfalls of this type of co-outsourcing, along with some case evidence showing how some organisations had approached it.

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR)

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) is a business practice that combines the intelligence of multiple trading partners in the planning and fulfilment of customer demand. The concept describes the CPFR process model, including the major capabilities and underlying success factors.

Collaborative Relationships in Procurement

This concept reviews collaborative relationships and explored how they have evolved from transaction process-based agreements to collaborative processes based on trust and information-sharing.

Commercial Intelligence (CI)

The concept explains how to define, gather, analyse, and distribute intelligence about products, customers, competitors, and any aspect of the environment needed to support executives and managers in making strategic decisions for the organisation.

Commodity Strategies

The concept reviews two categories of commodity strategies and describes their advantages and disadvantages. It also addresses implementation information and case evidence from leading companies.

Competitive Intelligence (CI)

Competitive intelligence concept is designed to aid managers and business owners in their decisions through competitive intelligence. You will gain an understanding of how to gather intelligence and use it to achieve organisational goals.

Complex Procurement

This concept has been designed for procurement professionals who engage in complex or high value tendering. It will give you a better understanding of complex procurement processes and will raise your awareness of rules and regulations in relation to procurement with specific reference to complex situations.

Content Management and e-Cataloge

The concept describes purposes and uses of catalogue management in organisations. It reviews some of the benefits of efficient catalogue management, as well as the number of limitations.

Continuous Improvement (CI)

Continuous improvement strategy has been mostly applied in the field of quality improvement. The concept reviews initiatives that enhance operational performance and reports on research in the area highlighting key success factors, capabilities and business evidence.

Contract Management

This concept describes different types of contracts, effective contracting methodologies and the benefits of contract management activities.

Cooperation and Mutuality in Procurement and Supply Chain

Created to assist procurement professionals to grasp the benefits of cooperation in procurement, the concept discusses how cooperation can reduce administrative costs, eliminate duplication of effort, lower prices, and improve information sharing.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

This concept explores the different ways in which CSR is defined and provides an account of success factors and business evidence.


This concept examines advantages and disadvantages of countertrade and discusses the implications, strengths, weaknesses and success factors of this trading approach.

Crisis Management

The concept treats 'crisis management' as a relatively new field of business and management research. You will learn how to promptly respond to a crisis and how to ensure that business continuity plans can be effectively executed and managed.


This concept provides a review of cross-docking systems and discusses techniques that can improve the overall efficiency of the logistics and distribution operation. The concept also presents useful examples and implementation information.

Cross-Functional Supply Management

The concept examines current practices and trends in the field of cross-functional supply-chain management and provides practitioners with both a specialist knowledge and basic information in related business disciplines to design and manage efficient and effective cross-functional supply chain systems.

Delivering Policy Through Procurement

This concept reviews the importance of procurement and assesses the impact procurement decisions have on the behaviour of suppliers and supply chains. It also considers the costs and benefits of these decisions.

Demand Management

This concept defines and covers the fundamentals of demand management, including the implementation process, strengths, drawbacks and success factors. It also explores the best practice companies are applying today through the revision of some useful case studies.

Demand-Driven Supply Chain

The concept explores the critical role played by joint collaboration and planning actions by partners in a demand-driven supply chain. It also describes the main capabilities and critical success factors of this process.

Deming Wheel

This concept describes a Plan-Do-Check-Act wheel management model suggested by Deming. The model is used by companies to provide a systematic approach to achieving continuous improvement.

Due Diligence

The concept provides convenient access to a range of information on due diligence, as well as some case evidence demonstrating how it influences organisations. It also reviews success factors and lists the main benefits of due diligence activities.

e-Auctions (Reverse Auctions)

Reverse e-auctions are replacing traditional competitive bidding for sourcing decisions. This concept has been designed to help suppliers compete dynamically in real-time for a buyer's business. It also describes a range of benefits and drawbacks for buying organisations.


This concept provides useful examples, success factors, implementation information and measures for e-business initiatives.


This concept provides an explanation of what e-Commerce is, how it can be applied and managed, and how companies can assess its major opportunities, limitations, issues, and risks. It concept also offers practical case evidence and additional resources.


The concept reviews e-Procurement and the current state of its field. It explores latest technologies and demonstrates how Information Communication Technology (ICT) can be used to optimise procurement performance.


This concept discusses the history of e-Sourcing and identifies popular e-Sourcing services, its areas of application, main benefits, and critical issues for all parties involved.

Early Supplier Involvement (ESI)

This concept explains the advantages of involving suppliers in cross-functional teams at the early stages of product development. It also reviews the process for working with suppliers to ensure alignment and accountability throughout the product launch and innovation processes.

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

The economic order quantity model is particularly beneficial for small business owners and warehouse managers who want to review their inventory systems in order to reduce costs and maximise profits. This concept will help you evaluate advantages and disadvantages of this inventory model before implementing it.

Economic Production Quantity (EPQ)

The Economic production quantity concept is designed to help inventory managers and practitioners better understand the benefits of maintaining the right amount of inventory.

Emergent Change

The concept provides a description of the emergent change process, the type of change that is not in an organisation's agenda - it simply manifests in our social systems when the underlying components have achieved a new order that give way to new behaviours.

Empowering Employees

More than 70% of organisations today practice some form of empowerment initiative. The concept explains how companies introduce empowerment practices and the reasons they are pursuing when doing so.

Ethical Purchasing/Ethical Procurement

The purpose of ethical purchasing is to promote good labour and environmental standards in supply chains. The concept reviews the main issues related to ethics in purchasing and presents some useful implementation information.

Exit Strategies

Exit strategies and contract escape clauses are particularly relevant for those dealing with outsourcing and subcontracting. The concept reviews the term ‘exit strategies’ and discusses how firms should approach and anticipate the ending of contracting relationships between buyers and suppliers.

Financial Management in Procurement

The aim of financial management in procurement is to maximise value for every member in the value chain while minimising cost and reducing risk. The concept has been designed to provide an overview of the conceptual and applied aspects of finance management in procurement.

Forward Integration

Forward integration is one of three types of vertical integration, where companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. This concept will help managers to differentiate between forward and backward integration and gain insights into its implementation steps and success measures.

Future Supply Chains

The future supply chain vision encompasses concepts for infrastructure sharing that go beyond common practices. This concept reviews the current state of supply chains and presents a conceptual approach that illustrates how the likelihood of change in the future.

Global Procurement

Global procurement became a way for organisations to meet the challenges of new markets and global competitors. The concept discusses strategies for global procurement management and their strengths and weaknesses. It also reviews recent business evidence and success factors to help practitioners make better and more informed decisions.

Green Logistics

The concept reviews the notion of green logistics and describes some of the problems that arise when companies adopt it. Strengths, implementation steps and business evidence provided will help organisations make a more informed decision about benefits of green logistics and transforming their supply chains.

Group Purchasing Organisations (GPOs)

Group purchasing organisations (GPO) negotiate the purchase of goods and services on behalf of their members. The concept reviews GPSs and their business models, discusses the benefits of using GPO for organisations and presents some weaknesses and success factors of this approach to purchasing.

Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration

The concept describes the basics and importance of supply chain integration and helps managers and practitioners to identify the level of influence the company has over its supply chain's suppliers and buyers.

Information Management (IM)

The concept is created to help practitioners better understand the notion of information management, its history, practical use, implementation strategy and limitations.

Innovation in Public Procurement

The concept discusses public procurement as one of the key elements of innovation policy, defining it, describing its significance for innovation strategies and offers some evidence and examples of good practice.

Internal Strategic Integration

The concept discusses the benefits of integrating the internal functions of an organisation and explains why internal strategic integration requires all company members to have access to an integrated information system spanning multiple functions and locations.

Just-In-Time (JIT)

Just-in-time is one of the powerful outcomes of Lean manufacturing and when appropriately applied it results in great benefits to organisations. The concept has been created to help professionals to quickly grasp the term and to understand the critical success factors.


Kraljic Matrix

This concept has been created to guide managers and business owners in recognising and analysing the weaknesses of their purchasing approaches. It explores a set of alternative purchasing strategies within each quadrant of the Kraljic Matrix.

Labour and Human Rights in Purchasing & Supply Management

This concept looks at how organisations view the welfare of their own employees and those across entire supply chains. It discusses how companies can be affected by unethical practice or misconduct in their supply networks and provides managers with useful information on how to anticipate, and mitigate against, such instances.

Lean Manufacturing / Production

The concept explains Lean manufacturing theory and techniques for its implementation. It reviews success factors and practical case evidence of organisations using this strategic approach.

Lean Supply Chain (LSC)

This concept reviews the lean supply chain model and discusses how lean logistics and information technology can help companies smooth out and facilitate supply chain flows. It also offers practical implementation guidance along with success factors and real examples.

Lifecycle System Approach

The Lifecycle System Approach is based on the assertion that products have a limited life, pass through distinct stages and require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies for each stage. The concept provides an overview of this approach and its main benefits and capabilities.

Long Tail

The concept examines the term long tail and identifies important factors leading to it. It has been created to help business professionals to better understand how to identify the extent of the tail, analyse its composition and determine the best approach to managing it.

Loosely-Coupled vs. Tightly-Coupled Supply Chain

This concept introduces the terms and describes some essential characteristics of loosely-coupled and tightly-coupled supply chains.

Marketing Services Procurement

Procuring marketing services is often frustrating and complicated for both marketers and buyers. The concept looks at the benefits that collaborative buying can help to achieve and explores the implications and drawbacks of the process.

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

The concept has been created to assist operational managers and practitioners in ensuring the availability of materials and products for planned production. It explores the ways to maintain the lowest possible levels of inventory, plan manufacturing activities, and deliver schedules and purchasing activities.

Multidivisional (M-Form) Organisational Structure

The concept assesses the importance of internal organisational structure in determining a firm’s performance and explores the strengths and limitations of a multidivisional organisational structure.

Negotiations in Procurement

Negotiations can help to work out a deal and are critical in procurement. The concept provides a description of the main characteristics, business tools and critical success factors and will be useful for decision-makers and professionals involved in negotiations.

Optimised Production Technology (OPT)

Simulation can be used to investigate the performance of a business process, forecast its future performance or improve existing processes. The concept is designed to help practitioners and business owners discover better and more efficient ways to improve their business and processes.

Outsourcing in Procurement and Supply Chain

The purpose of this concept is to introduce and provide an insight into the benefits of outsourcing in procurement and how organisations decide which activities to perform in-house and which to buy in the market. The concept also provides useful case evidence and a step-by-step implementation guidance.

Paradigm and Paradigm Shifting

Paradigms are generally defined as a framework that has unwritten rules and that directs actions. A paradigm shift occurs when one paradigm loses its influence and another takes over. The concept defines paradigm and paradigm shift and explains how it can relate to company strategies and industry cycles.

Procurement Transformation

The concept discusses some underlying principles that can determine the success or failure of a procurement function during a period of change. It also offers some case studies and best practice from a variety of industries.

Purchase to Pay (P2P) Process

The P2P is a process enabled by technology. It speeds up the process of purchasing from point of order to payment, and entails the full cycle of procurement. The concept has been designed to help business professionals to examine the benefits and limitations of this process, and to gain a basic understanding of the implementation processes.

Purchasing Cards (P-Cards)

The concept examines the advantages and disadvantage of P-cards, as well as the factors affecting the implementation of this purchasing method.

Purchasing Strategies

The concept reviews the value and contribution of purchasing strategies to the overall corporate performance and the performance of other functions.

Purchasing Structures/Models

This concept describes how purchasing departments can be structured and how they evolve over time.

Quality Management

The concept focuses on quality management practices and their role in establishing and sustaining competitive advantage. It reviews the main capabilities, success factors and useful implementation information.

Relationship Models

The concept describes the type of connections and associations between buyers and suppliers, and discusses some of the relationship models and their advantages and weaknesses.

Resources and Competencies in Procurement

The concept focuses on ‘competences’ as productive resources in organisations. It defines a ‘competence’, reviews its properties and introduces some case evidence and implementation steps.

Reverse Supply Chain / Reverse Logistics

Reverse logistics has gained increasing importance as a profitable and sustainable business strategy. This concept describes a holistic view of reverse logistics and presents its main attributes, success factors, and other useful professional tools.

Risk Management in Purchasing and Supply Management

Purchasing departments use various strategies and techniques to minimise the impact of detrimental events occurring in the supply chain. This concept has been created to assist managers with risk management. It presents main attributes and some examples of risk management through proactive purchasing activities.

Shared Services in Procurement and Supply Chain Management

This concept defines and reviews the evolution of shared services in procurement. It describes some common features and offers some success factors and implementation steps.

Single Sourcing vs. Sole Sourcing

This concept reviews benefits and drawbacks of sole-sourcing and single-sourcing approaches. It aims to help professionals to improve efficiency and guarantee the consistency of supply and price stability.


Sourcing is a critical activity used at both tactical and strategic levels. It is concerned with what needs to be purchased, why, when and where. The concept is created to help supply chain managers and practitioners to improve, develop and implement strategic sourcing strategies.

Spend Analysis

The concept explores the importance of procurement visibility and explains how organisations can determine spend by commodities, products, services and suppliers. You will gain an understanding of how to better leverage your buying power, reduce costs and strategically improve supplier relationships.

Standards and Policies in Procurement

The concept reviews standards and policies related to procurement and that underpin corporate and operational strategies. It explores the business application of these policies and discusses the importance of ensuring that procurement activities are legal.

Strategic Business Units (SBUs)

A strategic business unit is a separate, specialised subsystem in the company which acts as an independent company. Having SBU assists organisations to plan their strategies and make manufacturing decisions. The concept provides a review of the critical issues on an SBU benefits and success factors.

Strategic Procurement

This concept addresses the fundamental objectives of purchasing activity and outlines useful implementation information for the development of a competitive purchasing strategy.

Supplier Evaluation

The concept reviews the process of evaluating and approving potential suppliers by providing a description of the process and measurement methods for the assessment of current and potential suppliers.

Supplier Incentivisation

The concept describes supplier incentivisation and reviews the strengths, capabilities, success factors and main constraints of this tool.

Supplier Performance Management (SPM)

This concept reviews business processes that involve collecting and analysing information that helps to continuously assess supplier performance. It is designed to aid procurement professionals improve their relationship with suppliers and review the steps required to build a collaborative approach.

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)

The aim of this concept is to provide practitioners with the knowledge and skills required to manage the relationship with suppliers. It reviews the role of suppliers within the organisation’s quality management systems and their contribution to the organisation’s innovation and future sustainability.

Supplier Segmentation

Supplier segmentation is the process of dividing suppliers into distinct groups. The concept describes how this can be done and explores how organisations can benefit from segmenting their supply base.

Supplier Selection

The concept has been designed to provide business professionals with an understanding of how to evaluate and select the right supplier, organise external resources effectively, and identify and manage the risks associated with external suppliers.

Supply Base Management (SBM)

A supply base is defined as the portion of a supply network that is actively managed by a buying company. The concept reviews effective business relationships with suppliers and ways to facilitate better management of the supply base.

Supply Chain Complexity

The concept covers activities related to identifying, measuring, analysing and controlling complexity. It presents some examples and discusses the strengths, capabilities and success factors embedded in the complexity of supply chains.

Supply Chain Finance (SCF)

The aim of the Supply Chain Finance concept is to improve your understanding of supply chain financial efficiency and common financial management techniques. The concept will provide a set of solutions available for financing specific goods and/or products as they move from origin to destination along the supply chain.

Supply Chain Integration (SCI)

The concept reviews integration and cooperation in supply chains and discusses the professional tools, business evidence and critical success factors of this process.

Supply Chain Management (SCM)

The concept reviews SCM and its boundaries in terms of business functions. It also examines current practices, trends and issues in supply chain management, as well as the critical success factors of SCM and some business evidence.

Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR)

The concept describes the framework for evaluating and improving enterprise-wide supply chain performance and management. It reviews its development, characteristics and use, along with practical examples, benefits and other professional tools.

Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM)

The concept reviews the literature, presents some examples and determines the main advantages, capabilities and success factors of the SCRM. It aims to provide an understanding of the business requirements needed for supply chain risk management from a practitioner perspective.

Supply Chain Security Management

The concept reviews the risks and challenges related to important aspects of security and threats, including piracy, terrorism and theft. The aim of the concept is to equip managers with the knowledge essential for effective supply chain management and risk mitigation.

Supply Chain Visibility (SCV)

Supply Chain Visibility reviews basic elements of an organisation’s supply chain and explored the difficulty of navigation between different IT systems. The concept introduces tasks performed by administrators of buyer organisations and highlights the strengths and success factors of this practice.

Sustainable Procurement

The concept explores the ways in which organisations use their procurement function to foster sustainable development and reviews strengths, weaknesses and success factors embedded in this practice.

Sustainable Supply Chain

The concept summarises the literature on sustainable supply chain management, defines sustainable supply chain elements and reviews implementation information and success factors.

Tactical vs. Strategic Purchasing

This concept is designed to help managers differentiate between tactical and strategic purchasing. It reviews both types of purchasing and explores how they can be aligned with organisational strategy.

Third-Party Marketplaces

The concept describes a business model where companies leave web marketing to a third party. It reviews the relevant literature and main characteristics of web-based platforms and highlights their main benefits and success factors.

Time to Market

The speed at which companies can introduce products into the market is critical for sustaining competitive advantage, and the reduction of product development cycle time has become a strategic objective for many technology-driven firms. The concept explores how this can be achieved and offers some practical examples and success factors.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

The concept analyses various aspects of TQM with emphasis on its strengths and limitations. It also examines the key elements of the approach and some critical factors that can influence its implementation process.

Traditional / Open Loop / Forward Supply Chain

This concept discusses elements and features of the traditional supply chain and provides other tools and resources for professionals willing to further explore the structure.

Triple Bottom Line (TBL)

The concept describes the notion of 3BL and explores the ‘bottom line’ of the profit and loss, ‘people’ and ‘planet’ accounts. It offers some case evidence on how 3BL has benefited organisations and how firms can implement these principles.

Understanding Supply Markets and Competition

The concept reviews the main characteristics of supply markets and some of the competitive factors affecting them. It describes the relevance of Porter’s five forces analysis and explores other factors that should be considered when assessing competition.

Value Chain Management (VCM)

The value chain management concept will help project leaders and its sponsors to develop long-lasting trusting relationships with suppliers. The concept reviews the main capabilities and pitfalls of the approach and highlights the main implementation steps.

Value-Added Network (VAN)

Value Added Networks (VANs) simplify the communication process by reducing the number of parties that firms have to communicate with. The concept is created to help managers and practitioners to grasp the term and understand the strengths, weaknesses and capabilities of VANs.

Vendor / Supplier Rating

The concept describes how a vendor/supplier rating system operates and reviews its main advantages and disadvantages. The concept also explores the benefits and success factors of different vendor rating systems.

Vendor Managed Inventory

The concept provides information on the ways vendor managed inventory (VMI) program can benefit an organisation. It reviews the three key elements of a successful VMI programme, its implementation steps and success factors.

Warehouse Management Systems (WMS)

The concept describes tools for warehouse management. It reviews such systems and their characteristics and explores many inherent advantages of implementing an automated inventory and warehouse management systems.

Warehousing and Inventory Management

This concept describes ways of managing processes, operations, assets and costs to maintain an efficient flow of goods and services throughout global supply chains.